In Chicago style, the answer to the headline’s question is 316–17 (with an en dash, although a hyphen is fine if an en dash isn’t handy).
Abbreviating number ranges according to The Chicago Manual of Style (per section 9.61 in the 17th ed.) is easy if you can remember these three rules:
1. For numbers up to 100 and for multiples of 100, use all the digits.
2. For 101 through 109, 201 through 209, etc. show only the changed part.
3. For everything else, use two digits unless you need more digits to show the changed part.
Bonus rule: Roman numerals are always given in full.
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#ChicagoStyle for Students
Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is a smaller version of The Chicago Manual of Style written specifically for students. Now available in its new 9th edition.
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Top photo: Cricket Scoreboard Numbers, courtesy Wikimedia Commons.